High fever in a child is the most common complaint that mothers turn to a pediatrician. When this situation arises in the family, panic often occurs, especially if the child is very small. It is important to know the rules for lowering the temperature and learn to understand when emergency medical intervention is necessary.
In the first few days of life, the body temperature of the newborn can be slightly elevated (37.0-37.4 C in the armpit). By the year it is set within the normal range: 36.0-37.0 degrees C (usually 36.6 degrees C). Elevated body temperature (fever) is a general protective reaction of the body in response to a disease or damage.
But I want to note right away that you should not self-medicate. It is important! Situations are different, in connection with this I decided to write such an important review, but all that will be said below is only for your personal acquaintance, you need to know that there is no panic. EVERYTHING IF THE CHILD HAS A TEMPERATURE HIGH - CALL THE DOCTOR AND ACTION ACCORDING TO THE DOCTOR'S RECOMMENDATIONS!
In modern medicine, there is a fever due to infectious diseases and noncommunicable causes (lesions of the central nervous system, neurosis, mental disorders, hormonal diseases, burns, injuries, allergic diseases, etc.).
The most common infectious fever. It develops in response to action. pyrogens(from the Greek. pyros - fire, pyretos - heat) - substances that increase body temperature. Pyrogens are divided into exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal). When bacteria enter the body, they multiply actively and various toxic substances are released during their life. Some of them, which are external pyrogens (entered the body from the outside), are able to increase the temperature of the human body. Internal pyrogens are synthesized directly by the human body itself (leukocytes - blood cells, liver cells) in response to the introduction of foreign agents (bacteria, etc.).
In the brain, along with centers of salivation, respiratory, etc. there is a thermoregulation center, "tuned" to a constant temperature of internal organs. During illness, under the influence of internal and external pyrogens, thermoregulation "switches" to a new, higher temperature level. Elevated temperature in infectious diseases is a protective reaction of the body. Against its background, interferons and antibodies are synthesized, the ability of leukocytes to absorb and destroy foreign cells is stimulated, and the protective properties of the liver are activated.
In most infections, the maximum temperature is set between 39.0-39.5 C. Due to the high temperature, microorganisms reduce their reproduction rate and lose their ability to cause diseases.
In what areas of the body can a child's temperature be measured?
Temperature can be measured in the armpit, in the inguinal fold and in the rectum, but not in the mouth. The exception is temperature measurement with a dummy thermometer. Rectal temperature (measured in the rectum) is approximately 0.5 degrees C higher than oral (measured in the mouth) and one degree above the axillary or inguinal. In the same child, this scatter can be quite large.
For example: the normal temperature in the armpit or inguinal fold is 36.6 degrees C, the normal temperature measured in the mouth is 37.1 degrees C, the normal temperature measured in the rectum is 37.6 degrees C. The temperature can be slightly higher than the generally accepted norm to be an individual feature of the baby. Evening indicators are usually higher than the morning by several hundredths of a degree. The temperature may increase due to overheating, emotional arousal, increased physical activity. To measure the temperature in the rectum is convenient only for small children. A five-six-month-old baby deftly twists and does not allow you to do this. In addition, this method can be unpleasant for the child.
An electronic thermometer is most suitable for measuring rectal temperature, which allows you to do this very quickly: you will get the result in just one minute. So, take a thermometer (mercury shake off before the mark below 36 degrees C), grease its tip with baby cream. Put the baby on the back, raise its legs (as if you were washing it), carefully insert the thermometer into the anus by about 2 cm with the other hand. Fix the thermometer between two fingers (like a cigarette), and squeeze the baby’s buttocks with the other fingers.
In the groin and in the armpit, the temperature is measured with a glass mercury thermometer. You will get the result in 10 minutes. Shake the thermometer to a point below 36.0 degrees C. Wipe the skin dry in folds, as moisture cools the mercury. To measure the temperature in the groin, lay the baby on a barrel. If you are taking measurements under your armpit, put him on your knees or pick him up and walk around the room with him. Place the thermometer so that the tip is completely in the skin fold, then with your hand press the baby's handle (leg) to the body.