An abstract is a small research work in which a student of a school or university should show his ability work with thematic information. Its peculiarity is that it does not require a very deep immersion in a scientific problem, but at the same time, the significance of this work cannot be understated. If a student in school years did not have to deal with such a task, then he will first have to find out how to write an abstract correctly, and then carefully follow all the recommendations. Despite the apparent lightness, such work requires a lot of time, perseverance and certain skills in collecting and analyzing information.
How to write an abstract: work order
The order in which the topic is assigned depends on the teacher of the subject, who can:
- give a specific topic
- provide a choice of several options,
- indicate the field of study for independent study.
A softer policy allows students to take more interesting and fascinating tasks. However, it should be understood that further actions will be the same, regardless of the name of the topic and the problem being investigated.
Conditionally, to write a quality essay, you must go through the following steps:
- collection of information,
- study and analysis of the information found,
- writing work
- protection if required.
At first glance, nothing is complicated. But try to understand at least the first two points and immediately understand that writing a good abstract - This is a laborious and temporarily expensive process.
Where to get information?
Since each essay on psychology, literature, or philosophy is a study, its writing should be based on the study of authoritative sources. That is, if you decide to use the Internet to search for data, then be prepared that you will have to work with electronic versions of books and textbooks, since ordinary articles and reasoning have little weight for the abstract. Finding such information is difficult and monotonous, so experienced students are immediately sent to the library. Unfortunately, there are also pitfalls here.
Work in the library is a long time in the reading room, writing out and photocopying all the necessary information base. In good form with writing an abstract It is considered the use of periodicals - magazines and newspapers. In order to find something truly worthwhile in them, you will have to spend a lot of time looking through a selection of publications. Needless to say, this is not an easy task.
You can, of course, not be tormented, but download a couple of finished works from the Internet and, combining them, pass off the work as your own. Unfortunately, it is very likely that the teacher will consider such a method as plagiarism, because "pseudo-abstracts" from students are far from rare. About banal copying of works from student bases on the Internet is not even worth talking about. Such behavior is regarded in universities as a complete disrespect for the subject and lecturer and can lead to very serious troubles in further studies.
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How to write an abstract: recommendations + sample
The abstract is a work on the statement of facts taken from scientific and educational literature. The student can submit the project in writing or share information orally. In the first case, the teacher will pay a lot of attention to the design of the work, in the second - to its content.
If a student must report in writing, he wonders, how many pages should be in the abstract? Meet GOST, read the methodological manuals of your university. Exactly there are comprehensive answers. Consider the main sections of the abstract and the requirements for their design. Do not blindly follow the advice: first, compare our recommendations with the requirements of your university.
We will talk in more detail about how to do an abstract in word, since there are standard rules by which work is drawn up. If you do not know how to do an abstract, a sample for the student will help you with this. Download it from the link and make no mistakes when writing. It is enough to complete the task once according to the norms in order to subsequently correctly write other projects.
What does the abstract consist of? There are a number of required structural elements with different semantic load. Here they are:
- Title page. Gives general information about the abstract, student, university.
- Content. It is a short outline of the abstract, simplifies the search for the necessary data in the text.
- Introduction An abstract to the work with a listing of global goals, small tasks, and relevance of the topic. The student lists ways to achieve results.
- Chapters. Each from a new sheet. It is allowed to divide the chapter into paragraphs. They follow each other in solid text. You do not need to start a subsection from scratch.
This rule applies only to sections and chapters.
- Conclusion The final part with the results in the form of work done. The author draws conclusions, lists the theses for each section and subsection.
Cover page design
On the title page you need to write where you study (above). Indication of the faculty, department is required. The second point is the topic, academic discipline (in the middle). The student indicates the name of his supervisor for work, personal data (on the right), puts the date, place of protection for homework (central alignment at the very bottom). Usually, in the methodological instructions of the university there is an example of this section. It is enough to copy it and add personal data.
How to write goals and objectives: rules and example
How to make an abstract, if the goal is not set, the tasks are not defined? No way. Build on the topic to identify the main goal (this is the result of the study). It must be clearly stated. Then break it into several small tasks - steps. They do not repeat, but reveal the goal. Take the action plan as a basis to understand the significance of the work.
Properly draw up an abstract plan: recommendations
How to write an abstract correctly on the model? Make a plan and stick to it clearly. If you get acquainted with information on the topic, you need to highlight key points, and then structure them. The teacher just needs to look at the plan to identify errors in the work. It’s not even necessary to read an abstract.
What are the requirements for the plan? It should be consistent, clear, structured. The student identifies the most important issues that need to be addressed in the written work. A paragraph and an entire column are devoted to each such question. As a result, the student should fully disclose the topic.
How to write content: rules
How to draw up an abstract on the model? Students ask such a question immediately after filling out the title. The next step is the content or, to be correct, the table of contents. If you have already done written work, then you know what the essence of this section is. This is a list of all the structural elements of the abstract with the corresponding pages. Content - this is a kind of plan with which you can evaluate the degree of disclosure of the topic and easily find the desired chapter.
Pay special attention to the table of contents, because the teacher gets acquainted with this page immediately after reading the information on the title page. There should not be any blots and flaws. Making content easy if you know how to do it. It is enough to turn to GOST to identify the basic rules for this section.
So, list in the abstract its main elements:
- Introductory part as an introduction,
- Chapters, paragraphs or sections and subsections,
- The final part in the form of a conclusion,
- List of references / sources,
- Applications (this item may be missing).
With the content filling sorted out. Now the nuances: the font is the same as everywhere else - Times New Roman 14, spacing 1.5, indent the same as alignment.
What you need to write in the introduction
If in doubt, how to write an abstract correctly, problems will arise with the introduction. Usually the opening and closing parts are the most difficult to write. They are worked on after the main sections are ready.
What is the essence of the introduction? This section is important if only because the teacher gets to know him first. He learns about the main goal of the work, about the tasks that the author has set for himself. After reading the introduction, you will understand how relevant the topic is, what is the object and subject of research.
Follow this simple plan and easily write an introduction to any essay:
- Indicate the relevance of the topic. Explain your choice, determine the significance of this issue in the modern world.
- Set a goal, and then break it into several small tasks. Explain how you will achieve the result.
- Tell readers what the essay is about, what issues it is dedicated to. To do this, select the object, the subject of your research.
- List the methods of working with educational literature. Indicate the methods that you used.
- Briefly describe the list of sources that you plan to use. It can be not only scientific and educational literature, but also periodicals, monographs, even Internet sources.
- Develop a work plan, determine the structure of future work.
Do an abstract on the model of design for students, then there will be no difficulties with either the introductory part or the conclusion. In general, to write a quality introduction, work with sources, prepare the main sections. Then it’s the small business - to designate an object, define an object, set a goal, list tasks.
What you can write in conclusion: recommendations + example
How to draw up an abstract on the model for the school? Follow standards and guidelines. That's just the documents say almost nothing about the conclusion. We will analyze these questions because the final part of the written work is as important as the introductory part. Usually, teachers do not read chapters, but glance over the introduction and conclusion. If in the first part the student sets goals and objectives, determines the relevance of the research topic, then in the second part he draws conclusions, sums up results, draws attention to completed tasks.
To write a conclusion, it is enough to compare the goals indicated in the introduction with the work performed. What did you manage to achieve? What difficulties did you encounter? For the teacher, the student’s own thoughts are important, not the quotes taken from the main part of the essay. You can refer to the facts from the sections, but you do not need to rewrite them.
To the conclusion does not raise questions from the teacher, use theses. List the conclusions of each part of the essay. Do not use introductory constructions; personal pronouns should not be. Stick to a scientific style.
General requirements for abstract
How to draw up an abstract on the model for the university? Take advantage of Word. Such a program is available on educational and personal computers. It is installed even on applications. The time when the students wrote the essay by hand has sunk into oblivion. Of course, now you can write a written work manually, but why? It is long, boring and uncomfortable.
Before typing text on the keyboard, set the necessary parameters:
- If you do not know what font should be in the abstract, select Times New Roman. It is allowed to write 12 or 14 point. Line spacing is 1.5.
- Now let's talk about the fields of the abstract according to the guest book: 1-3 cm from the top, 2-3 cm from the bottom. The right field is 1.5 cm, the left is 2-2.5 cm.
- The numbering of pages in the guest abstract is through. It covers all sections, even images after the list of references. On the table of contents, title page numbers are not put, but are implied. The first is numbered, this is the third page.
You can not answer the question "How to draw up an abstract?" And not touch on capital letters. They are used in written work, but in strictly defined cases:
- When writing the title of the written work, the topic on the title page,
- When specifying the names of sections and subsections in the course of the text.
Bold font for guest essay is used to highlight important points. On the first page, the bold face is applicable to the topic. In the text, the names of the structural elements are written in bold (introduction, conclusion, number, section name). Allocation of important words is allowed. Although in this situation it is better to use italics.
The font size in the abstract is the same for all. Many students try to cheat by setting a large line spacing. So you can stretch the text to the desired number of pages, if not for one “but”. The rules set the exact size of the interval. He is 1.5. It is impossible to increase or, conversely, reduce this indicator. The only exception to the rule is the distance between the section name and the main text.
If you know how to write an abstract, then you are probably familiar with the size of the indent. An educational institution develops guidelines that indicate a specific number. Typically, the indentation is 1.25 cm. Although, according to the rules of GOST, this indicator can vary from 1 to 2 cm. Do not forget to fill out each thought in a separate paragraph.
Registration of mathematical formulas in the abstract
When a student doubts how to properly draw up an abstract, a sample for college will help to orientate oneself in work. If the author is studying in a technical or economic specialty, then he probably uses formulas. It is difficult to do without them, so the rules allow their mention in the text. When working in Word, use the MathType or Microsoft Equation editor to properly format the formulas. These tools are provided for a set of formulas, contain all the necessary signs and symbols. If there are several formulas in the work, each is located on a new line and has a serial number.
By the way, when designing the work, do not forget that you are writing a student essay. There is another kind of project, it is written by graduate students, it involves a more in-depth study of the topic. If you draw up a postgraduate essay according to the model, download the example on our website.
Rules for registering a bibliographic list
To draw up a guest essay, pay attention to each section, including the list of used literature. Follow the simple rules, and the teacher will not have any questions regarding the design:
- When using regulatory documentation (laws and regulations), put it first. The remaining source categories follow after.
- Arrange the textbooks alphabetically. If you are printing an abstract in Word, select the table of contents and use the "Sort" function.
- All sources are numbered in Arabic numerals, followed by a period. Then comes the name of the educational literature.
- If books written in a foreign language are included in the literary list, place such sources in a separate list after Russian-language textbooks.
Use alphabetical sorting. First, indicate the author’s data, then the name of the source.
In the examples of the guest essay, pay attention to the information for each source. Data on the textbook are indicated in the following order:
- Name of the author (s),
- The name of the textbook or article - quotation marks are not needed,
- Once again the name of the author,
- City of publication - can be indicated in full and abbreviated form (applies to Moscow, St. Petersburg),
- Year of publication - the abbreviation "g" is not necessary,
- The number of pages in the educational literature, pages with data from the abstract.
When drawing up a guest essay, you do not need to use images in the course of work. The task, although written, but involves an oral response. Учащийся ищет материал, чтобы выступить с ним перед одноклассниками или сокурсниками и получить оценку. Преподаватель анализирует, насколько полно раскрыта тема, насколько хорошо её понял студент. Если работа выполнена без недочетов, оценка предсказуема – «отлично».
Но вернемся к изображениям. Still, there are exceptions to the rules, and in some cases, pictures help to better reveal the topic of work. But embedding them in text is still not recommended. For this, a section with applications is provided. If it is not practical to take the image out of the scope of work, embed it in the text. This is usually a table or graphic. Each such object should have a serial number, and a link should be in the text.
How to make links
When writing a written work, the student is required to use literature. Its list is made out in a separate section. But according to the standards of the abstract, the student is obliged to refer to the resources used in the course of the text. The link is made after the sentence corresponding to a specific textbook. The student puts square brackets, indicates two numbers:
- The serial number of the book from the list of used literature,
- The page number from which the information is taken.
Thus, the link will look as follows: [3, p. 87]. The quote is issued in the same way. First comes the clipping from the text, and then the square brackets with the numbers. If you refer to regulatory legal acts, design them differently: instead of a page, indicate an article with paragraphs.
Subtleties of the name: "content" or "table of contents"?
The section "Content of the abstract" in the sample by guest is drawn up under the heading "Table of Contents". Many mistakenly call this paragraph “Content”. But in diplomas, essays, course projects correctly write "Table of Contents". All parts of the work are meaningfully and logically interconnected: they are all dedicated to the same topic, go one after another. Where there is no connection between sections, it is in periodicals. The magazine contains a dozen articles, but these are separate, independent stories. One does not continue the other. In newspapers the same way: headings are in no way interconnected. That is why in such publications the list with the listing of articles and the mention of pages is usually called the “Content”.
Remember this so as not to make a mistake when writing. And if you do not want to go into details, spend time writing an essay, use the services of a useful service for students. Professionals will complete the task, taking into account the requirements of GOST and methodological instructions of your educational institution, and you will receive "excellent" for the work delivered on time.
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