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How to learn morse code

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“A radio amateur who does not know the telegraph is a radio disabled person.”

E.T. Krenkel

To learn Morse code is just to remember fifty of simple sound combinations, to train to quickly write down the letters and numbers corresponding to them, and then learn to play the same with a telegraph key. Here, as with any study, the most important thing is persistence and regularity of classes.

It is best to study under the guidance of an experienced teacher, but in

it is completely real to learn completely independently with the help of computer programs.

Occupation mode

The normal mode of classes is 3-4 times a week for 1.5 - 2 hours a day (30 minutes in lessons, with breaks). Even better - every day for 1 hour (half an hour in the morning and evening). At least 2 lessons per week for 2 hours. In the normal mode of employment, the reception of texts at a speed of 40-60 characters per minute is mastered for about a month.

The most important thing is regularity and focus during classes.

It’s better to do half an hour without distracting anything than to twitch between a lesson and other things for three hours. Significant breaks at the training stage can nullify all the work done. Lessons that are not fixed by practice disappear easily, and almost all have to be started again.

When the “Morse code” is fully and reliably mastered, it is not forgotten and remains with the person for life. Even after a long break, it can be quite a bit of training - and all previous skills are quickly restored.

There are no people who are not able to master the reception and transmission of Morse code to speeds of 70-90 characters / min. It just takes someone two months to do this, someone six.

Where to start learning?

You should begin, of course, with the reception. There is an opinion that transmission on a key should be started only after the reception of all letters and numbers is more or less mastered. This is true when it comes to mechanical (klopodav) key, where, to achieve high-quality transmission, it will take a lot of effort.

With an electronic key, everything is much simpler. He himself forms the dots and dashes, as well as the gaps between the dots and dashes in the sign. To master it is much easier, it is not difficult to do it yourself. Based on this, it is recommended to simultaneously master the transfer. And in parallel - to transmit those signs that have already been mastered at the reception. Many years of practice have confirmed the effectiveness of such a technique.

The computer transmission rate of individual characters must be set to 60-70 characters / min (18-25 WPM). But the transmission speed of one character after another should first be set to no more than 10-15 characters / min (2-3 WPM), so that sufficiently large pauses between the characters are obtained.

From the very beginning, you need to memorize the sound of codes as whole musical melodies, and in no case try to count or remember how many “dots and dashes” are there.

There is a technique of memorization with the help of “tunes”. They select words that, when chanted, are reminiscent of the melodies of the characters conveyed by the “morse code”. For example, G = “gaa-gaa-rin”, L = “lu-naa-ti-ki”, M = “maa-maa”, etc.

This method has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is that a series of letters actually manage to be remembered faster. But, when recognizing a sign, the brain is forced to do a double job: first tune the tune with the tonal signals, and then translate the tune into the corresponding sign. Even with a quick mental reproduction of the tunes, they sound much slower than the real “morse code”. This prevents further increase the speed of admission.

There is an opinion that the melody method was invented during the Second World War. At the same time, it was assumed that such a radio operator was enough to at least somehow master the “Morse code”, and in a month or two he would still die at the front. At the same time, candidates for cool radio operators were selected, and they were always taught carefully - without refrain.

How to study?

Just remembering the sound of the signals as whole melodies, and in no case try to count how many “dots and dashes” are there!

The characters of the alphabet should be transmitted concisely from the very beginning, so that individual tonal messages in them could not be singled out and counted. The transmission speed in the initial period of training can be reduced only by increasing the pauses between characters, and even better by increasing the pauses between words (groups of characters).

On the first day of classes, it is recommended to learn four to five letters, in the next lesson add two or three letters to them, and later, one or two letters. The sequence of learning signs is not very important. There are many different methods that differ in the order of study of signs.

According to one of the methods, they start with the letters A, E, F, G, S, T, in the next lesson - D, I, M, O, V, then - H, K, N, W, Z, B, C, J , R, L, U, Y, P, Q, X.

According to another method, first E, I, S, H, T, M, O, then A, U, V, W, J, N, D, B, G, R, L, F, K, Y, C , Q, P, X, Z.

According to the third technique - you can learn letters in accordance with the frequency of their use in English. Then, at the initial stage of study, from them it will be possible to compose a lot of words and meaningful phrases. This is more interesting than training with meaningless texts. In this case, the order of learning the letters can be as follows: E, T, A, O, I, N, S, R, H, L, D, C, U, M, F, P, G, W, Y, B, V, K, X, J, Q, Z.

As a rule, they start digits after all the letters. But, having learned only one digit, even from five or six already learned letters it will be possible to compose many callsigns. And then CQ CQ CQ DE F1TAF F1TAF F1TAF PSE K Moreover, record only the callsign, everything else, like a melody, by ear. After a while, it will be possible to add another figure, then another .......

Punctuation marks (question mark, fractional line, section sign and comma) can be left last. And you should not be distracted by the study of additional letters of the Russian alphabet, at this stage it is important to master the international alphabet (the Latin alphabet of 26 letters and numbers).

At each lesson, they first train in the reception of previously studied characters, then separately learn the next batch of new ones, then they accept texts composed only of new characters, and then from old and new characters with some predominance of new ones.

New signs should be added only after the reception of the previously studied ones is reliably mastered. During most of the classes, each accepted sign must be written down each time - in some workouts typing them on the keyboard, in others - by hand on paper.

To remember the ABC signals faster, try at any free moment, whistle them, or hum.

Sometimes, after about 20 letters have been trained, you may feel that progress has slowed down and with the addition of a new sign, more and more errors occur during reception. This is quite natural. Then you need to completely lay aside for a few days everything that is already well-acquired, and deal exclusively with new letters. When they are reliably learned, it will be possible to again separately recall previously mastered, and then - to train in the reception of the entire alphabet.

If the mistakes in accepting long and well-learned characters, and different ones, then the sign that stands in front of them is most likely to blame. Losing too much time to “decipher” this sign, you simply do not have time to accept the sign following it.

It is very important not to stop there, but to try to constantly develop and consolidate success. As soon as you have learned all the letters and numbers, start listening to the “live radio”, starting from the areas where amateur radio beginners work (this will not work right away!).

Until you reach a reception rate of about 50 characters / min, do not compete with others. Compete so far only with yourself.

How to increase the speed of reception?

After the alphabet is learned, you should gradually switch from receiving compressed characters with long pauses between them to receiving texts with standard ratios of the duration of all elements. Pauses between characters need to be reduced a little (first of all, within groups and words), so that the real transfer rate is close to 50-60 characters / min (14-16 WPM), and in the future - even higher. Texts for training should consist of words (at first - short), as well as three to five-digit numbers, letters and mixed groups. The volume of radiograms should be gradually increased so that the time required for each reception comes out first about 2-3 minutes, and later, up to 4-5 minutes. Try to write down groups almost without taking a letter from a letter, and a pencil from paper. If you couldn’t immediately record a character while receiving the text, it’s better to skip it (make a dash in its place), but do not delay, do not try to remember, otherwise skip the next few.

If it is found that the same similarly sounding characters (for example, V / 4 or B / 6) are constantly confused, then two methods must be used alternately:

1) accept training texts from these characters alone,

2) temporarily exclude from the texts one of the confusing characters. For example, delete the letters V and B, leaving the numbers 4 and 6, and the next day - vice versa. Absolutely error-free reception can not be achieved yet. If the control texts contain no more than 5% errors and they are not repeated explicitly, then you can and should increase the speed.

For training, it is convenient to use a computer. A very good RUFZXP program, it transmits randomly generated amateur callsigns. You type the accepted callsign on the keyboard as you receive and press “Enter”. If the call sign is accepted correctly, the next one will sound faster. If you make a mistake, the next call will sound slower. For each call sign received, the program accrues points for you, which depend on the speed, number of errors and complexity of the callsign. After a certain number of callsigns have been transmitted (the default is 50), the program ends and you can analyze what mistakes were made, what was the maximum reception speed and how many points were scored.

In the third (current) version of the program, you can change the tone of the sound and request a repetition of the transmitted call sign if you could not immediately receive it. Training with RUFZXP is very exciting and always forces the operator to work at the limit of their capabilities.

A good, useful exercise is listening to familiar texts at high speed while tracking them in a finished printout.

Try to make your workouts varied - vary the speed, tone of signals, content of texts, etc. From time to time, you can try high-speed “jerks” - taking small text from a limited set of letters or numbers alone, but at a speed much higher than usual.

When the reception will be reliably mastered at a speed of about 50 characters per minute, you need to start the transition to recording the received character WITH A LAG for one character. That is, to record the next character not immediately, but during the next sound - this will help increase the reception speed. Experienced radio operators record characters with a delay of 3-5 characters and even a few words. From this time, you can start training to receive words and whole phrases by ear without recording. First, try to mentally build before your eyes something like a “running line” of voiced characters. In the future, frequently occurring words and amateur radio codes should be used to recognizing the whole, without dividing them into separate letters.

That's probably all. Two or three months and you can, when asked whether CW is working casually tossed back - naturally, like any normal HAM.

And finally, a simple program that will help everyone to learn Morse code
Reception of the entered text

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